Mold is, by and large, typically living substance of which size is microscopic. The organism which varies in form and color can grow anywhere as long as the surroundings are moist and dark. The mold can be highly hazardous to the human’s health affecting the vulnerable people like pregnant women and children.
Here are types of mold frequently found both in homes and business you need to know:
Table of Contents
- 1. Absidia
- 2. Acremonium
- 3. Alternaria
- 4. Aspergillus
- 5. Aureobasidium
- 6. Basidiospores
- 7. Botrytis
- 8. Chaetomium
- 9. Chrysonilia
- 10. Cladosporium
- 11. Curvularia
- 12. Emericella
- 13. Epicoccum
- 14. Eurotium
- 15. Fusarium
- 16. Geomyces
- 17. Geotrichum
- 18. Gliocladium
- 19. Gliomastix
- 20. Memnoniella
- 21. Mucor
- 22. Myrothecium
- 23. Nigrospora
- 24. Oidiodendron
- 25. Paecilomyces
- 26. Penicillium
- 27. Phialophora
- 28. Phoma
- 29. Pithomyces
- 30. Scopulariopsis
- 31. Sistotrema
- 32. Stachybotrys
- 33. Torula
- 34. Trichoderma
- 35. Ulocladium
- 36. Wallemia
- 37. Zygomycetes
Absidia or Absidia corymbifera naturally inhabits either in the ground or decaying plants. The tiny creature that belongs to the family of Cunninghamellaceae uniquely has a shape similar to a twig of a tree as well as an opaque violet shade. At home, you will find it thriving well under the carpet and in the soil of the potted plant. Is this guy toxic? It depends; those with low immunity system are prone to get affected by Absidia.
Acremonium used to be recognized as Chepalosporium commonly lives as a saprophyte. In the worst case, this microorganism can be parasite causing a couple infections on an animal such as eumycetoma, hyalohyphomycosis, and onychomycosis. The genus of fungi comprised of 100 species scattered in nature grows slowly in the damp spot. According to the research, Acremonium is the reason why people easily get the pulmonary infections.
One of the endangering types of mold is no other than Alternaria. The genus of ascomycete fungi is popularly known as the allergens leading to hay fever and asthma as well. Classified into 40 species, this kind is normally isolated from moist environments such as stored foods, textiles, and effluents. When the hot summer comes, spores of the species of Alternaria tenuissima float around in the air.
It is found that the total number of the species of Aspergillus in the world is nearly 200 sorts. They can easily be merged with the air and soil outdoor. In fact, some of the species are proven to be useful to the people’s civilization. As biodeterioration, Aspergillus plays a significant role to generate a vast number of enzymes needed by the human. On the contrary, it can be harmful; Aspergillus niger, for instance, it can cause lung infection to human.
Aureobasidium specifically Aureobasidium pullulans is basically a spoilage living substance. In an outdoor setting, the super tiny creature exists both in leaf and ground. What about indoor? It turns out that it can be found almost anywhere in the home as long as the media for living are wet. Damp walls, wet window frames, and carpet tend to be contaminated with this type of fungus. Besides, it has a close relation with the occupational disease.
Basidiospores, at the bottom, refer to the reproductive spore directly generated by a fungus namely Basidiomycete. They grow in the side issue of little importance inside a structure called basidium. Its surface is dotted with an attachment peg. When the environment is high in humidity, the spores are automatically pulled out. Speaking of the shape, the single-celled Basidiospore is at variance ranging from cylindrical to oval.
Botrytis or Botrytis cinerea is typically a necrotrophic fungus frequently attacking plants particularly the grape vine. As it is dominated by grey color, the people prefer calling it grey mold. Botrytis comes with two kinds of infections affecting the life of grapes i.e. grey rot and noble rot. The grey rot occurs when the host body is in humid condition while the noble rot is in the drier one.
A cellulolytic mold flourishing progressively in the decaying crop material, soil, and the air is the best description of a fungus called Chaetomium. Out of 80 species, the ones which the public is familiar with include C. murorum and C. funicola. Chaetomium is popular due to its ability to produce particular toxic substance named mycotoxins. Its existence degrades the quality of indoor air.
Chrysonilia sitophyla or red bread mold vegetates in a colony. The pink fungus produces the brilliantly colored spores. The holomorph species of this kind – Neurospora – is vastly applied for experimental purpose in the laboratories. Meanwhile, in the medical world, the people use the fungus in the major surgery as well as injection drug use. In the open space, Chrysonilia is often found on the ground surface.
Cladosporium is always associated with the asthmatic attack as it is the one becoming the foremost cause of it. Embracing 40 species, this genus of fungi lives very well both in the decaying plant material and damp soil. In the summertime, it is capable of generating around 50,000 spores. The acrylic painted walls and gypsum board with high concentration of moisture is prone to be affected by Cladosporium.
Curvularia is notoriously known as parasites affecting an array of plants inhabiting either the tropical or subtropical regions. Three major species of this kind that include Culvularia lunata, Culvularia geniculta, and Culvularia pallescens are successfully recovered from the infections of the human. At home, Culvularia often hides in the damp bottom of your living room, painted wooden furniture, and the same is true with the wallpaper.
Emericella nidulans is a kind of fungus spreading out across the soil. If it is at home, the strategic spots for it to thrive are no other than the wooden furniture which has been decomposed and dank carpet. The individuals who have no good immune system might be easily affected by this fungus. In accordance with the trusted report, it becomes the agent causing certain disease called aspergillosis to the human being.
Widely spread across the globe, Epicoccum is easily found in the land. The saprophytic quickly grows well in the soil (be it forest floor or compost) and decaying plants. The mold is well-known for its capability to produce colored pigments – this one serves the anti-bacterial agent for human’s body. Based on the daily use, the species of Epicoccum nigrum is mainly applied in the medical and agricultural field.
The exact illustration of Eurotium is a round-shaped mold of which color varies from bright yellow to white. Unlike other molds, the species of this kind requires the dry environment to live. The people usually cultivate Eurotium in a medium that is high in glycerine and sucrose. In the setting indoor, it is commonly uncovered in the rodent’s habitation and not to mention the grains which have been stored for a long time.
Fusarium is kind of fungus genus whose presence as a plant pathogen. In the agricultural world, it harms a number of crops that include tomatoes, pigeon peas, and bananas as well. The mold often gives rise to an array of distinctive mycotoxins. The substances cover zearalenone, trichothecenes, and fumonisins. The toxins make a big impact on humans and animals’ health. The disease inflicted letting the people severely suffer is definitely the keratitis.
Geomyces belongs to the genus of filamentous fungi. It is described as one-celled conidiophores with unique branches and two colors which are both white and yellow. The mold features its capability in adapting harsh environment. A study held in 2008 in regard to the case of white-nose syndrome shows that Geomyces increases the number of rats’ death. The rodents’ body surprisingly is infected by this malignant microorganism.
Geotrichum turns up as a spoilage creature that exists in the food products like bread and meat. In addition to that, the species thrives progressively in the contaminated water as well as the sewage waste. The tiny organism specifically Geotrichum candidum leads to a couple of illnesses including pulmonary, oral, and vaginal infections. Once those who are poor in immune system inhale the mold’s spore, they will be straightforwardly infected.
The genus of Gliocladium potentially brings pathogenic that is pretty harmful to the human’s health. It is characterized by the quality of being cellulolytic. The colonies having a texture just like the cotton develop rapidly. At the early development, the color of the bodies is like the combination of white and cream. When they reach out the aging time, the colonies turn into something green or reddish.
The species of Gliomastix has a close affiliation with Acremonium. The fungus is widely spread in soil and able to live in the medium made of wood, paper, and textile. The clear illustration of this sort of mold is that it has sprout shape and spores coming with black and grey pigment. Unfortunately, there hasn’t been the further research yet about whether or not; it can affect the human’s health.
Memnoniella echinata is recognized as a cellulolytic fungus that delivers a set of spores in chains. Speaking of how the mold grows, it goes well with canvas, woolen fabrics, and hardboard. Based on the appearance, Memnoniella literally is similar to a tiny organism popularly called Stachybotrys. As it generates a multiplicity of toxins, the mold may harm the people. It badly contaminates the indoor air.
Mucor is comprised of 50 species scattered across the world. It is obtainable in the decaying plants or fruits, soil, and vegetables. This sort of fungus undeniably triggers some allergies and not to mention the little infections among the people. Living under the warm temperature reaching up to 37 degrees Celsius, Mucor is wonderfully adaptive. Since it becomes the main source of lipids and carotenes, the people benefit the mold for the biomass production.
Myrothecium or Myrothecium verrucaria naturally inhabits mediums made of materials such as cotton, textiles, and canvas. It can be found in the entire globe. In the field of chemical industry, this kind of fungus belonging to the family of Incertae sedis is actively utilized as a pesticide in controlling the number of weeds and nematodes. Although Myrothecium is extremely effective to get rid of pest, it is not hazardous to the human being.
Unlike other molds, Nigrospora sphaerica is hardly ever found in the indoor situation. In the outdoor environment in the tropical zone, the fungus is often noticeable populating in the decaying plants. The colonies of it come up both wooly and hairy in the surface. The translucent straight and curved conidiophores are grouped in a cluster. Although Nigrospora is likely not a human pathogen, it was once reported causing the skin and eye infections.
Oidiodendron that is found almost anywhere on the planet covers two types of fungus species – Oidiodendron griseum and Oidiodendron tenuissimum. Oidiodendron is characterized by its tall shape with tree-like branches and grey shade. The spores of the mold vary from colorless (translucent) to brown. They are produced by the process of fragmentation taken place by the conidiophores branches. The natural habitat of Oidiodendron includes organic debris and soil.
The genus of Paecilomyces has a close relation with Penicillium. It features phialides characteristically elongated, thin, and disparate. Although the majority of the species of this sort rarely causes the infection on human, some like P. variotii and P. marquandii are the reasons why the people undergo a disease named mycotic keratitis. The never-green colonies develop rapidly and appear powdery. The colors range from lilac to yellowish brown.
Penicillium does share its substantial contribution toward the medical world. One of its species – the penicillin – serves as the modern antibiotic saving millions of lives of people around the world. The colonies of Penicillium are able to rot the foods and even produce some toxins. Penicillium chrysogenum is the one that’s frequently found in the indoor environment. It loves sticking to the damp carpet mattress and building materials.
Notoriously known as the major cause of water pipe and tank clogging, Phialophora tends to be disadvantageous to the greater part of people. The fungus species grows fast in the certain objects like wooden furniture, animal shit, decaying plants, as well as, soil. Additionally, its presence is detrimental to lumber industry since it makes the woody plants experience the blue staining.
The species of Phoma are nothing but less hazardous. Despite the fact, the contaminants are not shy to attack the individuals who are weak in the term of the immune system. In indoor setting, Phoma loves occupying wet wallpapers, window frames, and wooden objects. The common types are no other than Phoma glomerata and P. macrostoma.
Pithomyces specifically Pithomyces chartarum actively creates a mycotoxin better known as sporidesmin. The toxic substance lets the cattle run into facial eczema. Aside from toxin, the fungus also yields multi-cellular and darkish spores. The form of them distinctively varies from club-shaped to elliptical. Pithomyces thrives rapidly in the debris.
The genus of anamorphic fungi that refers to Scopulariopsis comprises an abundance of species available in nature. The living substance becoming the pathogen for animals is frequently found in the decaying wood and soil. In the medical field, it is meritorious to free the dangerous arsenic gas from the substrate.
Containing 46 species widely spread in the world, Sistotrema comes with distinct look recognizable to most people. The basidiomycete is normally found in the damp decaying buildings made up of wood. A particular species like the bright white Sistotrema confluens develops progressively in the outdoor environment.
Stachybotrys or black mold is pretty common in the society. Although the fungus’ appearance is likely threatening, the species is, for sure, harmless to people. It springs up in spots rich in cellulose such as wood pulp, plant debris, and not to mention hay. The species of Stachybotrys chartarum is capable of generating a wide array of mycotoxins.
Torula known as Torula yeast is completely used to enhance the flavor of edible products. People cultivate this fungus by means of mediums high in wood sugar including wood liquor. In addition to being the main ingredient in the food making, Torula which contains the high level of monosodium glutamate is handy for replacing the common MSG.
Trichoderma exists in all types of soil. The genus of fungi has a multitude of species and strains that include Trichoderma aggresivum, Trichoderma estonicum, and Trichoderma reesei. The opportunistic pathogen can lead to an infection in children with the low immune system. In the field of agricultural biotechnology, Trichoderma is used for numerous purposes from getting rid of plant pathogen to bringing the cellulose down.
Ulocladium is typically a genus of saprophytic fungi. The darkly pigmented mold populates in these following objects – dung, grasses, decaying plants, and wood. At home, the fungus dominates wet areas, be it a kitchen or a bathroom. Speaking of the source of a disease, it has been proven to cause skin infection and allergy (hay fever) as well.
Based on the recent finding, Wallemia is classified into three kinds of species – Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Wallemia ichthyophaga. The first variety – considered the most well-known – mostly grows in salted beans, jams, and cakes. It fantastically bears the overly tiny spores that hold the allergenic characteristic.
Zygomycetes boasts a handful of characteristics – and the one signifying it is being saprophytic. Scattered ubiquitously in the world, the fungus is prone to enter the human’s body by way of inhalation. It can make the people experience fungal infections.
In conclusion, there are countless types of mold that exist within spitting distance of the people. The fact that the microorganisms are useful for any objectives is indeed mesmerizing.